Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Harlan Coben believes that if you're a writer, you'll find the time; and that if you can't find the time, then writing isn't a priority and you're not a writer. For him writing is a （1）_job—a job like any other. He has （2）_it with plumbing, pointing out that a plumber doesn't wake up and say that he can't work with pipes today.
（3）_, like most writers these days, you' re holding down a job to pay the bills,it’s not （4）_to find the time to write .But it’s not impossible.It requires determination and single-mindedness. （5）_that most bestselling authors began writing when they were doing other things to earn a living .And today, even writers who are fairly （6）_often have to do other work to （7）_ their writing income.
As Harlan Coben has suggested it's a（8）_of priorities.To make writing a priority, you'll have to （9）some of your day-to-day-activities and some things you really enjoy .Depending on your （10）_and your life style, that might mean spending less time watching television or listening to music,though some people can write （11）they listen to music.You might have to （12）the amount of exercise or sport you do.You'll have to make social media an （13）activity rather than a daily time-consuming（14）.There 'll probably have to be less socializing with your friends an less time with your family .Its a（15）learning curve,and it won't always make you popular.
There's just one thing you should try to keep at least some time for, （16） your writing—and that's reading. And writer needs to read as much and as widely as they can; it's the one（17）supporter—something you can’t do without.
Time is finite. The older you get, the （18）it seems to go. We need to use it as carefully and as（19） as we can, that means prioritising out activities so that we spend most time on the things we really want to do. If you’re a writer, that means— （20）—writing.
1.A.difficult B.normal C.steady D.pleasant
2.A.combined B.compared C.confused D.confronted
3.A.If B.Through C.Once D.Unless
4.A.enough B.strange C.wrong D.easy
5.A.Accpect B.Explain C.Remember D.Supposeo
6.A.well-known B.well-advised C.well-informed D.well-chosen
7.A.donate B.generate C.supplement D.calculate
8.A.cause B.purpose C.question D.condition
9.A.highlight B.sacrifice C.continue D.explore
10.A.relations B.interests C. memories D.skills
11.A.until B.because C.while D.before
12.A.put up with B.make up of C.hang on to D.cut down on
13.A.intelligent B.occasional C.intensive D.emotional
14.A.habit B.test C.decision D.plan
15.A.tough B.gentle C.rapid D.funny
16.A.in place of B.in charge of C.in response to D.in addition to
17.A.indispensable B.innovative C.invisible D.instant
18.A. duller B.harder C.quieter D.quicker
19.A.peacefully B.generously C.productively D.gratefully
20.A.at most B.in turn C.on average D.above all
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C, or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
On a recent sunny day13.000 chickens roam over Larry Brown's 40 windswept acres in Shiner Texas.Some rest in the shade of a parked car Others drink water with the cows. This all seems random,but it's by design, part of what the $6.1 billion US.egg industry bets will be its next big thing:climate-friendly eggs.
These eggs,which are making their debut now on shelves for as much asS8adozen,are still labeled organic and animal-friendly,but they're also from birds that live on farms using regenerative agriculture-special techniques to cultivate rich soils that can trap green house gases.Such eggs could be marketed as helping to fight climate change.
I'm excited about our progress"says Brown,who is adding more cover crops that draw worms and crickets for the chickens to eat. The birds' waste then fertilizes fields.Such improvements "allow our hens to forage for higher-quality natural feed that will be good for the land, the hens, and the eggs that we supply to our customers.
The egg industry's push is the first major test of whether animal products from regenerative farms can become the next premium offering.in barely more than a decade,organic eggs went from being dismissed as a niche product in natural foods stores to being sold at Walmart.More recently there were similar doubts about probiotics and plant-based meats,but both have exploded into major supermarket categories.If the sustainable-egg roll out is successful. it could open the floodgates for regenerative beef,broccoli,and beyond.
Regenerative products could be a hard sell because the concept is tough to define quickly,says Julie Stanton, associate professor of agricultural economics at Pennsylvania State University Brandy wine.Such farming also brings minimal, if any,improvement to the food products (though some producers say their eggs have more protein).
The industry is betting that the same consumers paying more for premium attributes such as free-range,non-GMO,and pasture-raised eggs will embrace sustainability.Surveys show that younger generations are more concerned about climate change,and some of the success of plant-based meat can be chalked up to shoppers wanting to signal their desire to protect environment. Young adults "really care about the pla says John Brunnquell, president ofEgg Innovations"are absolutely altering the food chain beyond what It hink even they understand what they're doing.The industry is betting that the same consumers paying more for premium attributes such as free-ra non-GMO, and pasture-raised eggs will embsustainability.Surveys show that younger generations more concerned about climate change,and some ot success of plant-based meat can be chalked u shoppers wanting to signal their desire to protect environment.Young adults "really care about the plasays John Brunnquell, president ofEgg Innovations"are absolutely altering the food chain beyond what It think even they understand what they're doing.
21. the climate - friendly eggs are producted .
[A] at a considerably low cost
[B] at the demand of regular shoppers
[C] as a replacement for organic eggs
[D] on specially designed forms
22. larry Brown is excited about his progress in .
[A] reducting the damage of
[B] accelaratiny the disposal of uest
[C]. Creatinya sustainable system
[D] Attratiny customers to his products
23. the example of organic eggs is used in the paragragh if to suggest .
[A] the doubts to over natural feeds
[B] the set breaks in the eggs industry
[C] the potential of regenerative products
[D] the promotional success of super markets
24. It can be learned from paragraph that young people .
[A] are reluctant to change their diet
[B] are likely to buy climate - friendly eggs
[C] are curious about new food
[D] are amazed at agruculoure advornces
25 John Brungvel would disagree with Julie Stanton overegenerative products .
[A] A markets prospects
[B] standard definition
[C] market prospect
[D] moricl implication
More Americans are opting to work well into retirement, a growing trend that threatens to upend the old workforce model.
One in three Americans who are at least 40 have or plan to have a job in retirement to prepare for a longer life, according to a survey conducted by Harris Poll for TD Ameritrade. Even more surprising is that more than half of “unretirees” – those who plan to work in retirement or went back to work after retiring – said they would be employed in their later years even if they had enough money to settle down, the survey showed.
Financial needs aren’t the only culprit for the “unretirement” trend. Other reasons, according to the study, include personal fulfillment such as staying mentally fit, preventing boredom or avoiding depression. About 72% of “unretiree” respondents said that they would return to work once retired to keep mentally fit while 59% said it would be tied to making ends meet.
“The concept of retirement is evolving,” said Christine Russell, senior manager of retirement at TD Ameritrade. “It’s not just about finances. The value of work is also driving folks to continue working past retirement.”
One reason for the change in retirement patterns: Americans are living longer. Older Americans are also the fastest-growing segment of the U.S. workforce, and boomers are expected to live longer than previous generations. The percentage of retirement-age people in the labor force has doubled over the past three decades. About 20% of people 65 and older were in the workforce in February, up from an all-time low of 10% in January 1985, according to money manager United Income.
Because of longer life spans, Americans are also boosting their savings to preserve their nest eggs, the TD Ameritrade study showed, which surveyed 2,000 adults between 40 to 79. Six in 10 "unretirees" are increasing their savings in anticipation of a longer life, according to the survey. Among the most popular ways they are doing this, the company said, is by reducing their overall expenses, securing life insurance or maximizing their contributions to retirement accounts.
Unfortunately, many people who are opting to work in retirement are preparing to do so because they are worried about making ends meet in their later years, said Brent Weiss, a co-founder at Baltimore-based financial-planning firm Facet Wealth. He suggested that preretirees should speak with a financial adviser to set long-term financial goals.
“The most challenging moments in life are getting married, starting a family and ultimately retiring,” Weiss said. “It’s not just a financial decision, but an emotional one. Many people believe they can’t retire.”
26. The survey conducted by Haris Poll indicates that .
A. over half of the retirees are physically fit for work
B. the old workforce is as active as the younger one dose
C. one in three Americans enjoy earlier retirement
D. more Americans are willing to work in retirement
27. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that Americans tend to think that .
A. retirement may cause problems for them
B. boredom can be relieved after retirement
C. the mental health of retirees is overlooked
D. “unretirement” contributes to the economy
28. Retirement patterns are changing partly due to .
A. labor shortage
B. population growth
C. longer life expectancy
D. rising living costs
29. Many retirees are increasingly swines by .
A. investing more in stocks
B. taking up odd jobs
C. getting well-paid work
D. spending less
30. With regard to retirement, Bent Weiss thinks that many people are .
We have all encountered them, in both our personal and professional lives. Think about the times you felt tricked o frustrated by a membership or subscription that had a seamless sign-up process but was later difficult to cancel. Something that should be simple and transparent can be complicated,intentionally or unintentionally,in ways that impair consumer choice. These are example of patterns.
First coined in 2010 by user experience expert Harry Brignull,dark patterns"is a catch-all term for practices that manipulate user interfaces to influence the decision-making ability of users.Brignull identifies 12 types of common dark patterns,ranging from misdirection and hidden costs to roach motel,"where a user experience seems easy and intuitive at the start,but turns difficult when the user tries to get out.
In a 2019 study of 53,000 product pages and11000 websites,researchers found that about one in 10 employs these design practices. Though widely prevalent,the concept of dark patterns is still not well understood.Business and nonprofit leaders should be aware of dark patterns and try to avoid the gray areas they engender.
Lawmakers and regulators are slowly starting to address the ambiguity around dark patterns, most recently at the state level. In March, the California Attorney General announced the approval of additional regulations under the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that ensure that consumers will not be confused or misled when seeking to exercise their data privacy rights."The regulations aim to ban dark patterns-this means prohibiting companies from using"confusing language or unnecessary steps such as forcing them to click through multiple screens or listen to reasons why they shouldn’t opt out.
As more states consider promulgating additional requlatons, there is a need for greater accountability form within the business community. Dark patterns also be addressed on a self-regulatory basis, but only if organizitions hold themselves accountable, not just to legal requirements, but also to industry best practices and standards.
31.It can be learned from the first two paragrphs that dark patterns___
A.improve user experience
B. leak user information for profit
D.remind users of hiddeb costs
32.The 2019 study on dark pattern is mentioned to show___
A.their major flaws
B. their complex designs
C. their severe damage
D.their strong presence
33.To handle digital deception business should__
A.listen to customer feedback
B.talk with relevant teams
C.turn to independent agencies
D.relyon professional traning
34.The additional regulations under the CCPA are ntendedto___
A. guide user though opt-out processes
B. protect consumers from being tricked
C. grant companies data privacy right
D. restrict access to problematic content
35.According to the last paragraph a key to coping with dark patterns is
A. new legal requirements
B. business self-discipline
C. strict regulatory standards
D. consumers' safety awarene
Although ethics classes are common around the world, scientists are unsure if their lessons can actually change behavior; evidence either way is weak, relying on contrived laboratory tests or sometimes unreliable self-reports. But a new study published in Cognition found that, in at least one real-world situation, a single ethics lesson may have had lasting effects.
The researchers investigated one class session’s impact on eating meat. They chose this particular behavior for three reasons, according to study co-author Eric Schwitzgebel, a philosopher at the University of California, Riverside: students’ attitudes on the topic are variable and unstable, behavior is easily measurable, and ethics literature largely agrees that eating less meat is good because it reduces environmental harm and animal suffering. Half of the students in four large philosophy classes read an article on the ethics of factory-farmed meat, optionally watched an 11-minute video on the topic and joined a 50-minute discussion. The other half focused on charitable giving instead. Then, unknown to the students, the researchers studied their anonymized meal-card purchases for that semester — nearly 14,000 receipts for almost 500 students.
Schwitzgebel predicted the intervention would have no effect; he had previously found that ethics professors do not differ from other professors on a range of behaviors, including voting rates, blood donation and returning library books. But among student subjects who discussed meat ethics, meal purchases containing meat decreased from 52 to 45 percent - and this effect held steady for the study’s duration of several weeks. Purchases from the other group remained at 52 percent.
“That’s actually a pretty large effect for a pretty small intervention,” Schwitzgebel says. Psychologist Nina Strohminger at the University of Pennsylvania, who was not involved in the study, says she wants the effect to be real but cannot rule out some unknown confounding variable. And if real, she notes, it might be reversible by another nudge: “Easy come, easy go.”
Schwitzgebel suspects the greatest impact came from social influence — classmates or teaching assistants leading the discussions may have shared their own vegetarianism, showing it as achievable or more common. Second, the video may have had an emotional impact. Least rousing, he thinks, was rational argument, although his co-authors say reason might play a bigger role. Now the researchers are probing the specific effects of teaching style, teaching assistants’ eating habits and students’ video exposure. Meanwhile, Schwitzgebel — who had predicted no effect — will be eating his words.
36. Scientists generally believe that the effects of ethics classes are________.
[A] hard to determine
[B] narrowly interpreted
[C] difficult to ignore
[D] poorly summarized
37. Which of the following is a reason for the researchers to study meat eating?
[A] It is common among students.
[B] It is a behavior easy to measure.
[C] It is important to students’ health.
[D] It is a hot topic in ethics classes.
38. Eric Schwitzgebel’s previous findings suggest that ethics professors________.
[A] are seldom critical of their students
[B] are less sociable than other professors
[C] are not sensitive to political issues
[D] are not necessarily ethically better
39. Nina Strohminger thinks that the effect of the intervention is________.
40. Eric Schwitzgebel suspects that the students’ change in behavior________.
[A]can bring psychological benefits
[B]can be analyzed statistically
[C]is a result of multiple factors
[D]is a sign of self-development
Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41-45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
[A] Start Low, Go Slow
[B] Round Out Your Routine
[C] Talk With Your Doctor
[D] Make It a Habit
[E] Go Through the Motions
[F] Don't Go It Alone
[G] Listen to Your Body
Moving your body has been shown to reduce anxiety and depression, lower rates of many types of cancer and the risk of a heart attack, and improve overall immunity. It also helps build strength and stamina.
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Getting back into exercise can be a challenge in the best of times, but with gyms and in-person exercise classes off-limits to many people these days because of COVID-19 concerns, it can be tricky to know where to start. And it’s important to get the right dose of activity. “Too much too soon either results in injury or burnout,” says Mary Yoke, PhD, a faculty member in the kinesiology department at Indiana University in Bloomington.
Follow this advice to return to exercise safely.
41.[A] Start Low, Go Slow
Don’t try to go back to what you were doing before your break. If you were walking 3 miles a day, playing 18 holes of golf three times a week, or lifting 10-pound dumbbells for three sets of 10 reps, reduce activity to ½ mile every other day, or nine holes of golf once a week with short walks on other days, or use 5-pound dumbbells for one set of 10 reps.
Increase time, distance, and intensity gradually. “This isn’t something you can do overnight,” Denay says. But you’ll reap benefits such as less anxiety and improved sleep right away.
42. [G]Listen to Your Body
If you’re breathing too hard to talk in complete sentences, back off. If you feel good, go a little longer or faster. Feeling wiped out after a session? Go easier next time. And stay alert to serious symptoms, such as chest pain or pressure, severe shortness of breath or dizziness, or faintness, and seek medical attention immediately.
43. [D]Make It a Habit
Consistency is the key to getting stronger and building endurance and stamina.
Ten minutes of activity per day is a good start, says Marcus Jackovitz, DPT, a physical therapist at the University of Miami Hospital. All the experts we spoke with highly recommend walking because it’s the easiest, most accessible form of exercise. Although it can be a workout on its own, if your goal is to get back to Zumba classes, tennis, cycling, or any other activity, walking is also a great first step.
44. [E]Go Through the Motions
Even if you can’t yet do a favorite activity, you can practice the moves. With or without a club or racket, swing like you’re hitting the ball. Paddle like you’re in a kayak or canoe. Mimic your favorite swimming strokes. The action will remind you of the joy the activity brought you and prime your muscles for when you can get out there again.
45. [F]Don't Go It Alone
Exercising with others “can keep you accountable and make it more fun, so you’re more likely to do it again,” Jackovitz says.
You can do activities such as golf and tennis or take a walk with others and still be socially distant. But when you can’t connect in person, consider using technology. Chat on the phone with a friend while you walk around your neighborhood. FaceTime or Zoom with a relative as you strength train or stretch at home.
You can also join a livestream or on-demand exercise class. SilverSneakers offers them for older adults, or try EverWalk for virtual challenges.
Editor’s Note: A version of this article also appeared in the January 2022 issue of Consumer Reports On Health.
Section III Translation
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
Although we try our best, sometimes our paintings rarely turn out as originally planned. Changes in the light, the limitations of your painting materials and the lack of experience and technique mean that what you start out trying to achieve may not come to life the way that you expected.
Although this can be frustrating and disappointing, it turns out that this can actually be good for you. Unexpected results have two benefits: you pretty quickly learn to deal with disappointment and realise that when one door closes, another opens. You also quickly learn to adapt and come up with creative solutions to the problems the painting presents and thinking out side the box will become your Second nature. In fact, creative problem-solving skills are incredibly useful in daily life, with which you’re more likely to be able to find a solution when problem arises.
Section IV Writing
Suppose you are planning a campus food festival, write an email to international students in your University to
1) introduce the food festival, and
2) invite them to participate.
Please write your answer on the ANSWER SHEET.
Do not use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)
Dear International Students,
As one of the organizers of Campus Culture Department, I am writing to invite you to attend the coming Food Festival in our school.
It would be extremely exciting to taste various traditional Chinese food from different areas. There would be such amazing food types as Gong Bao Chiken from Sichuan Province and Roast Beijing Duck from Beijng, which can fully enhance your cognition on Chinese food culture as well as the costumes featuring regional characteristics. Additionally, delicious food can arouse the sense of happiness, giving you all a lovelier experience during the study in China.
The Food Festival will be held on the west square next to library, from 9:30 a.m. to 12:00 a.m. this Saturday. An early reply on our invitation would be appreciated, and we will be delighted if you could attend the activity.
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your writing, you should
l) interpret the chart and
2) give your comments.
You should write at least 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET 2. (15 points)
What is profoundly demonstrated in the above column chart is that dramatic changes have taken place in the total and rural amount of China’s expressage from 2018 to 2020. The total number of China’s expressage increased from 51 billion in 2018 to 64 billion in 2019 and then to about 83 billion in 2020, and meanwhile the number of the rural expressage also significantly jumped from about 12 billion to 15 billion and then to 30 billion in the same period.
The column chart illustrates the phenomenon that people in mounting numbers prefer to purchase goods online delivered by the expressage which ascends impressively both in total and the rural. Three reasons, in my belief, can account for this trend. First and foremost, with the acceleration of the society and economy enormously boosting people’s livelihood, the dramatic increase of expressage has inevitably turned out to be a prevailing trend. Moreover, the fast pace of modern life and the fierce competition of society result in people’s gradually changed values, leading more and more people tend to put much emphasis on their convenience in order to save time and energy. Furthermore, relevant policies issued by the authorities and government advance the development of the China’s expressage, especially in the rural areas.
From what have been analyzed above, it can be confidently concluded that this is the natural result of social and economic development, which complies with the interest of both the country and the people. Accordingly, it can be predicted that with the collaboration of the government and individuals, this trend will definitely continue in the forthcoming years.
上面的柱状图深刻地表明，从2018年到2020年中国的快递业务总量和农村快递业务量发生了巨大的变化。中国快递业务总量从2018年的510亿增加到2019的640亿,然后在2020年增加到830亿, 同时农村快递业务的数量也大幅跃升，在同一时期，由 120亿到150亿, 然后骤增至300亿。